Inflammation and Biocompatibility

We measure changes in concentrations of biomarkers (e.g., cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and hydrolytic enzymes) known to be associated with inflammation. It is critically important to consider the host inflammatory response when developing products such as antimicrobial formulations, cosmetics and skincare products, implantable devices, and wound dressings.

  • The body responds to foreign bodies, even relatively inert biomaterials, with inflammation, an integral part of the healing process. However, sustained inflammation may indicate chronic infection or foreign body response, resulting in fibrosis, encapsulation, and consequent failure of implantable devices.
  • We use ELISA and multiplex assays that can detect up to 50 proteins at once to determine expression trends in biomarkers associated with wound healing, host antimicrobial activity, inflammation, and chronic wound formation.
  • We can use known promoters of inflammation such as LPS and SDS to determine whether your formulations reduce or exacerbate chronic inflammation.
  • Experiments can be performed on porcine mucosal, porcine skin, or human skin models.

Models Used

Human Skin

Read more about how we simulate infection, wounds, and inflammation in ex vivo human skin tissue.

We perform research on human skin to test for efficacy against known human pathogens. Our most common organisms tested are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Infections tested are planktonic or biofilm.

We perform research on human skin to test for efficacy against known human pathogens. Our most common organisms tested are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Infections tested are planktonic or biofilm.

We obtain ex vivo human skin from the NDRI and within 48 hours of death begin preparing the wounds. Our standard model consists of a 5 mm (variable) explant with a smaller wound made inside. The wounds can be burns, incisions, or biopsy punches and can reach varying depths. We assess wound healing progress with biomarker panels and histology.

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Porcine Skin

Discover how we test a variety of products such as surgical site scrubs, wound dressings, skin cleaners, and disinfectants on our ex vivo porcine skin model.

Porcine skin testing is a method for testing formulations or compounds that are applied to skin (e.g., pre-surgical devices). We can test the efficacy of a compound against the host flora or a known seeded pathogen. We apply this testing on large or small areas of skin.

We can use our porcine skin models to study inflammation by testing the tissue for biomarkers known to be involved in inflammatory processes. After treating the skin with experimental formulations, we can analyze for differences in inflammatory cytokine concentrations at various time points.

Porcine skin serves as a relevant model for wound care. The skin has comparable thickness, hair follicle density, and wound closure via reepithelialization.

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Porcine Mucosal Model (PMM)

Find out how our porcine mucosal model facilitates high-volume testing and provides highly reproducible results.

We apply this model to compounds requiring infectious disease testing. The mucosal tissue serves as an optimal environment for the growing of pathogens. We test against either planktonic or biofilm infections in this model.

This model serves as a unique means of testing for inflammatory cytokines in a cost-effective manner. We can perform ELISAs to determine whether experimental compounds are pro- or anti-inflammatory.

Much of the human genital tract is composed of mucosal tissue. Therefore, this model is excellent for predictive preclinical testing of compounds or products relating to urogenital health.

Using our mucosal model, we can measure bacterial adhesion and host cell toxicity to experimental devices.

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